Gypenosides improved inflammatory status, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in obese C57BL/6J mice
Gypenosides improved inflammatory status in obese mice
This study investigated the effect of dietary gypenosides on inflammation, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in male obese C57BL/6J mice induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Treatment with 300 mg/kg BW/d gypenosides for eight weeks significantly reduced body weight gain, total plasma cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in the obese mice compared with the control. Gypenosides also reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and interleukin-6 in both plasma and inguinal white adipocyte tissue. Moreover, gypenosides consumption alleviated hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance possibly by promoting energy expenditure through the AMPK signaling pathway and upregulating thermogenic genes in the brown and inguinal white adipocyte tissues. In addition, these metabolic changes were accompanied by an increased Akkermansia muciniphila abundance in the gut microbiota. The results suggest the health benefits of gypenosides intake in obese mice.