The role of rutin and diosmin, two citrus polyhydroxyflavones in disease prevention and treatment
Chronic inflammation and dysregulation of apoptotic pathways leading to free radical-induced tissue damage are widely recognized as major underlying causes of major degenerative diseases, including cancer, diabetes, neurological and cardiovascular disorders. Citrus fruits are rich sources of polyphenolic flavonoids well known for their wide range of pharmacological properties. Rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) and diosmin (diosmetin 7-Orutinoside) are two major polyhydroxyflavone glycosides abundantly found in citrus peels and, to a lesser extent, in pulp of a variety of different citrus species. During digestion, hydrolysis by intestinal enzymes and gut microbiota lead to the release of their corresponding bioactive aglycones (e.g., quercetin or diosmetin). Data obtained in cell-based, animal and clinical studies demonstrated strong preventive and/or therapeutic effects of rutin and its aglycone flavone quercetin. Although lesser studies available, our recent literature review suggests diosmin as promising citrus fruit polyhydroxyflavonoids, effective against various diseases associated with chronic inflammation.