Formation of furanoic compounds in model systems with saccharides, amino acids, and fatty acids, analyzed with headspace-solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry
Furan and furan derivatives are processing contaminants found in thermally processed food, such as coffee or canned products. For the determination of furan and ten derivatives, a sensitive headspace-solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method with stable isotope dilution analysis was developed. Different precursors such as saccharides, saccharide/amino acid mixtures, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and oils were heat processed to investigate the formation of furanoic compounds via Maillard reaction and lipid oxidation. Therefore, a low moister (silica gel with 10% water content) and an aqueous (phosphate buffer, pH 4.5, 7, and 9) model system were chosen to study the effect of water content and pH value on the formation process. The formation of different furan derivatives could be attributed to distinct precursors; furfuryl alcohol was highly formed from 1,4-linked disaccharides, whereas PUFA formed the highest amounts of 2-ethylfuran and 2-pentylfuran.