Flavor Compounds, Free Amino Acids, and Proteins in Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Powder
Mushrooms contain a remarkable amount of complete protein, indicating potential as a conventional protein alternative. Commercially available mushroom powder would be protein concentrate and isolate starting material, while valorizing all powder molecules is sustainable and economical. This study aimed to quantify taste-related compounds (five soluble sugars, five organic acids, and five 5′-nucleotides), 23 free amino acids, protein, and other proximate compositions in two A. bisporus mushroom powders. The most dominant sugar was mannitol (5.6 and 6.9% dry matter), followed by glucose and sucrose. The major acid was oxalic acid (0.30 and 0.48%), followed by acetic and malic. Among five nucleotides, 5′-GMP (umami taste, 0.08 and 0.11%) was predominant. Total free amino acids were 4.0 and 6.5%, of which Glu (umami taste, 1.1 and 1.4%) was dominant. Asp (umami taste, 0.27 and 0.67%) was lower. The mushroom powders contained all essential and sweet- and bitter-related amino acids along with around 20% protein; the protein included at least six different fractions per SDS-PAGE. The powders were also majorly comprised of carbohydrates, especially fiber. These results demonstrated taste-related compounds and the nutritional composition in mushroom powders, providing evidence for mushroom powder use as a starting material to develop mushroom protein concentrates and isolates.