Journal of Food Bioactives, ISSN 2637-8752 print, 2637-8779 online
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Volume 5, March 2019, pages 31-42

Vesicle properties and health benefits of milk phospholipids: a review


Figure 1.
Figure 1. Block process flow diagram to illustrate a typical routine of milk phospholipid (PL) isolation and purification.


Table 1. Phospholipid composition of three typical dairy products
ProductPL on product (g/100g)PL on DM (g/100g)PL on fat (g/100g)Protein on product (g/100g)Protein on DM (g/100g)Reference
Butter serum AMF1.2511.5414.8–48.42.9132.71(Lopez et al., 2017; Smithers and Augustin, 2013)
Sweet buttermilk0.162.034.49–33.13.3132.95(Smithers and Augustin, 2013)
Acid buttermilk whey0.11.8425.40.9984.7(Pimentel et al., 2016)


Table 2. Industrial manufacturing of milk phospholipids
PatentPatent familyAssigneeFeedLipid extractDefatDM Purity (%)Yield (%)
Notes: aEthanol, iso-propanol, n-heptane; bAcetone, ethyl acetate, and 2-pentanone; cButter serum powder, buttermilk; dUltrafiltration and dia-filtration; eWhey protein concentrate 80; fDimethyl ether.
US8471002B2(2013)EP1814399B1(2016), JP2008515455A(2008), KR20070114108A(2005), CN101090635B(2012), CA2583704C(2012), DK1814399T3(2016)Fonterra, NZBSP, et alEthanol, DMEfCO225, 75, 60
(Phospholac 500, 600, 700)
US8231922B2(2012)EP1901620A1(2008), JP5455365B2(2008), JP5455365B2(2014), KR101352288B1(2014), CA2611121C(2014), RU2420083C2(2011), WO2006128465A1(2006)Arla, DKBM wheyMF75, 20 (PL 75/20)
US13205071 (2011)EP20060728307(2006), RU2480474C2(2013), WO2006114790A3(2007), CA701316521AEnzymotec Ltd, IsraelMilk PL 12.3%Ethanol and n-hexaneAcetone, CO287
US9700061B2(2017)EP1880612A1(2008), JP5079805B2(2012), KR101492647B1(2015), CN101494990B(2013), CA2655238A1(2008), WO2008009636A1(2008)Corman SA, BelgiumFresh creamDeproteinize by UF/DFd2050
Megmilk Snow Brand Co Ltd, JapanMilk PLEthanolCO260–99
US5677472A (1997)EP0689579B1(1999), JP3504267B2(2004), CA2155950A1(1994), DE69420712D1(1999), DK0689579T3(2000)Svenska Mejerienas Riksforenings Ekonomi AB, SwedenBM, wheyEthanol, et alaAcetone et alb70–9552
US9567356B2(2017)EP2912044B1(2018), JP2018000944A(2018), CN104768959B(2018), CA2888483A1(2014), DK2912044T3(2018), ES2684310T3(2018), WO2014066623A1(2014)Cargill Inc, USBM, LecithinAlcohol (C1–3, C8–22)58.7
EP2168438A1(2010)EP20080015710(2008)Meggle Japan Co LtdBSP, BMcHigh pressure ethanolCO270 (PE10, PS 33, PI 27)3
WO2002034062A1(2002)PCT/BE2000/000130(2000)Nv Marc BooneBM et al5–20 kDa UFSM doubled
WO2007123424A1(2007)PCT/NZ2007/000087(2007)Owen John CatchpolePL, egg yolkEthanolCO2


Table 3. HPLC assays to determine milk phospholipids
Milk sample originLipid extractPL fractionStationary phaseColumn size (L×D mm)Particle size (µm)Mobile phaseElutionVolume (mL/min)Elution time (min)Oven tempera-ture (°C)DetectorIdentified species in orderReference
aQuadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry; bevaporative light-scattering detector, low temperature; ccharged aerosol detector; dlysophosphatidylcholine; elactosylceramide; facetonitrile and ammonium acetate; gchloroform and methanol; hacetic acid, methanol; ihexane, iso-propanol, di-chloromethane, formic acid; jhuman being milk; khexane, diethyl ether; lmethanol, phosphoric acid, and acetonitrile (32, 0.6, 67.4 % in volume, respectively).
Bovine rawCMSilica100×2.11.72 (ACN)fgradient0.32845Q-TOF-MSaPS, PG, PI, PE, PC, SM, LPCd(Ali et al., 2018)
Cow, ewe, goat skimDMCSilica500×4.554 (CM)ggradient0.5–1.45335ELSDPE, PI, PS, PC, SM(Castro-Gómez et al., 2014)
Cow rawCMC18100×2.11.72 (ACN)gradient0.22521Q-TOF-MSPC, SM, LPC(Cheema et al., 2017)
Cow BM UFCMSilica150×332 (CM)gradient0.52035ELSD-LTIIb 50 °C 3.5BarPE, PC, SM, PS, PI(Ferreiro et al., 2014; Ferreiro et al., 2016)
Donkey rawCMSilica150×332 (AA, MeOH, DCM)hgradient0.517RP LC-MSPI, PE, PS, PC, SM(Contarini et al., 2017)
Cow rawCMSPE (CM)Betasil DIOL150×4.653 (C6, IPA FA)igradient1.51930CADc 2.4 BarPI, PE, PS, PC, SM, LPC(Kiełbowicz et al., 2013)
Cow rawCMSPE (C6, DEE)kSilica250×4.652 (CM)gradient140ELSD (3.1Bar 50 °C)PE, PI, PS, PC, SM(Zheng et al., 2014)
Cow, yak rawCMSPESilica8×3 250×352 (ACN)gradient12450ELSD (90 °C)PI, PE, PS, PC, SM(Luo et al., 2018)
Cow rawCMSilica250×4.652 (ACN)gradient0.62530MSPS, SM, PE, PC, PI, LacCere(Liu et al., 2017; Liu et al., 2015)
Cow rawCMSilica150×332 (CM)gradient0.53540ELSD (85 °C)PE, PI, PS, PC, SM(Lopez et al., 2014)
Cow rawCMC1832×0.1 200×0.132 (ACN)gradient0.5200MSPI, PE, PS, PC, SM(Lu et al., 2016)
HBMjCMHypersil APS-2, aminopropyl150×2.132 (CM)gradient0.252925MSPI, PE, PC, PS, SM(Ma et al., 2017)
Cow rawCMSilica250×4.552 (CM)gradient1–1.56040ELSDPE, PI, PS, PC, SM(Rodríguez-Alcal et al., 2015)
Cow rawCMSPE (C6, DEE)Silica250×4.652 (CM)gradient140ELSD 50 °C 3.2BarPE, PI, PS, PC, SM(Haddadian et al., 2018)
Cow rawCMTLC (C6, DEE)Silica150×2.132 (CM)gradient15540ELSDPE, PI, PS, PC, SM(Zou et al., 2015)
HBMCMTLC (C6, DEE)Silica250×4.653(MeOH, ACN)lIsocratic130UV205nmPE, PC, SM(Wu et al., 2019)
Silica150×332(DCM, MeOH)gradient2640CAD 2.4BarPA, PI, PE, PS, PC, SM(Barry et al., 2016)
Cow wheyCMSilica150×4.632(CM)gradient0.527ELSD 40 °C 1.8BarPE, PI, PS, PC, SM(Torkamani et al., 2016)


Table 4. Milk phytosomes and liposomes as bioactive compound carriers
Celastrol (CST)Soy PCPhytosomes4–5-fold increase(Freaga et al., 2018)
ApigeninSoy PCPhytosomesUp to 82%(Telange et al., 2017)
Berberine (BER)Soy PCPhytosomes3-fold increase(Yu et al., 2016)
18β-glycyrrhetinic acidSoy lecithinPhytosomesExtended storage to 30–90 days(Djekic et al., 2016)
CurcuminMilk PLLiposomes: SonicationMore efficient and stable than soy lecithin(Jin et al., 2016)
Lactoferrin (LF)Milk PLLiposomes: Ethanol injectionGastric stable and slow intestinal hydrolysis(Liu et al., 2013)
Tea phenolicMilk PLLiposomes: Micro-fluidizationMore efficient than soy lecithin(Gulseren and Corredig, 2013)
β-carotene and ascorbic acidMilk PLLiposomes Micro-fluidizationPoor physical stability upon storage(Farhang, 2013)
SilybinMilk PLReverse phase evaporation (RPE)10-fold increase(Siegel et al., 2014)


Table 5. Health effects of milk phospholipids
FunctionalityDietary supplementaryModelResultReference
CognitivePL PUFAIn vivo: Healthy elderlyCognitive function was activated(Konagai et al., 2013)
CognitiveLacprodan® PL-20In vivo: Healthy elderlySet protocols to assess Lacprodan® PL-20(Scholey et al., 2013)
CognitiveMFGMEx vivo: RatsMFGM altered brain lipid(Moukarzel et al., 2018)
CognitiveLacprodan® PL-20Ex vivo: Neonatal pigletSpatial ability was enhanced(Liu et al., 2014)
CognitiveMFGMEx vivo: Suckling rat pupsRelated genes expression was promoted(Brink and Lönnerdal, 2018)
CognitiveMilk SMIn vivo: Low birth weight infantsSM activated prefrontal cortex of the brain, yield better score on visual evoked potential, attention, and memory(Tanaka et al., 2013)
CognitiveGangliosideIn vivo: 6-months infantsCognitive score increased(Gurnida et al., 2012)
CognitiveMFGMIn vivo: Infant and ToddlerThe diet led to similar cognitive score to breastfed infants but showed higher score to pure polar lipids fed infants(Timby et al., 2014)
CognitiveMilk PLIn vivo: 54 healthy, non-obese adult menCognitive performance was improved under conditions of psychosocial stress but failed to moderate cortisol response(Boyle et al., 2019)
CognitiveMilk PL coated dietary lipidEx vivo: Healthy male miceT-maze test: Increased to 87% from 74% in short-term memory tests; while same in long-term memory(Schipper et al., 2016)
SkincareMilk PLEx vivo: Dog with allergic skin disordersEnteric improvement and better skin conditions(Karasawa et al., 2017)
SkincareMilk PLIn vivo: Healthy adults aged 20 to 39 yearSkin elasticity in the region below the eye increased(Higurashi et al., 2015)
SkincareMilk PLIn vivo: Atopic dermatitis patientsNot effective(Keller et al., 2014)
SkincareMilk PLEx vivo: MiceModulated epidermal covalently bound ceramides associated with formation of lamellar structures and alleviated skin inflammation(Morifuji et al., 2015)
Anti-inflammatoryMFGM rich dietEx vivo: MiceAttenuated the inflammatory response to a systemic LPS challenge; cut gut permeability.(Snow et al., 2010)
Anti-inflammatoryMilk SM dietEx vivo: high-fat-fed miceAltered distal gut microbiota and lowered serum LPS(Norris et al., 2016)
Anti-inflammatoryMilk SM dietEx vivo: high-fat-diet-induced miceSuppressed metabolic indicator of obesity(Norris et al., 2017)
Anti-inflammatoryMilk PL extractIn vitro: MA-104 cells of embryonic African green monkey kidneyPolar lipids displayed effects of anti-rotavirus activity by focus-forming unit (FFU) assay(Fuller et al., 2012)
Anti-inflammatoryMFGMEx vivo: Rat pupsProtective and replenishing effects on neonatal intestinal epithelium caused by clostridium difficile toxin; milk PL deficiency led to defect of GI development(Bhinder et al., 2017)