Journal of Food Bioactives, ISSN 2637-8752 print, 2637-8779 online
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Volume 9, March 2020, pages 23-35

Should the in vitro colorimetric assays in antioxidant and lipid oxidation evaluation be abandoned? A critical review focusing on bioactive molecule screening assays in in vitro and in vivo models


Figure 1.
Figure 1. Absorption mechanism of flavonoid glucosides in the small intestine.


Table 1. Methods for measuring the absorption of antioxidants and their metabolites in rat and human systems
Hydroxycinnamic acidFeeding 14C-labeled hydroxycinnamates (Rat)Observation of 25% of labeled hydroxycinnamates in body tissue after 2 hChesson et al. (1999)
Ferulic acidFeeding FA-enriched sem-purified diets (Rat)Recovery of <50% the ingested dose in urinePassive diffusion or Na+/dependent carrier-mediated transportAdam et al. (2002)
Cinnamic acidMucosal uptake technique (in vitro)-Na+/dependent carrier-mediated transportWolffram et al. (1995)
Quercetin and isorhamnetin glucosidesIngestion of 270 g of fried onions containing quercetin and isorhamnetin glucosides (Human)Detection of five metabolites after sulfation and glucuronidation in plasmaProximal part of the small intestineMullen et al. (2006)
(−)-Epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and (−)-catechinIngestion cocoa-based drink containing epicatechin and catechin (Human)Detection of trace amounts of metabolites such as (−)-epicatchin-3′-O-glucuronide and (−)-epicatchin-3′-sulfate in plasmaAbsorption in
the small intestine
Ottaviani et al. (2012)
(−)-Epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and (−)-catechinIngestion of dark chocolate and measuring metabolites in plasma and urine (Human)Detection of metabolites such as (−)-epicatchin-3′-O-glucuronide and (−)-epicatchin-3′-sulfate in plasma and approximately 20% of urinary recoveryActis-Goreta et al. (2012)
AnthocyaninsIngestion of raspberries containing cyanidin-based anthocyanins (Human)Detection of two metabolites such as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and a cyanidin-O-glucuronide in plasma and 0.007% of urinary recoveryPrior, (2012)