Journal of Food Bioactives, ISSN 2637-8752 print, 2637-8779 online
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Volume 5, March 2019, pages 18-30

Anthocyanins and intestinal barrier function: a review


Figure 1.
Figure 1. Overview of tight junction proteins in enterocytes (Chiba et al., 2008; Michielan and D’Incà, 2015; Ulluwishewa et al., 2011).
Figure 2.
Figure 2. Mechanism by which TNF-α modulates tight junctions in epithelial cells. Abbreviations: MLCK, myosin light-chain kinase; IKK, IκB kinase; IκBα, inhibitor of kappa B; TNFR: tumor necrosis factor receptor; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α; ZO-1, zonula occludens-1; TEER, trans-epithelial electrical resistance. Adapted from Ulluwishewa et al. (2011) and Weber et al. (2010).
Figure 3.
Figure 3. pH dependence of cyanidin and its degradation products. Adapted from: Fleschhut et al. (2006).
Figure 4.
Figure 4. Deglycosylation of cyanidin-3-glucoside.
Figure 5.
Figure 5. Colonic catabolites of cyanidin. Adapted from: De Ferrars et al. (2014), Fleschhut et al. (2006) and Xie et al. (2016).